CLINICAL PEDIATRIC HIV AIDS
WORKING TOGETHER SUPPORT TO THE HEALTH OF ALL CHILDREN BY RESEARCH, EDUCATION AND INFORMATION NETWORKING. Advancing of the future pediatric to optimalized physical, mental and social health and well being for fetal, newborn, infant, children, adolescents and young adult
CLINICAL PEDIATRIC HIV AIDS be a global resource and advocate in the field of pediatric HIV AIDS, advancing excellence in clinical care through education and information networking
World Health Organization estimates that approximately 2.3 million children are living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as of 2006. In 2006 alone, 530,000 children were newly infected, an improvement from the 640,000 newly infected in 2004. Not only are the children themselves ravaged by disease, but their primary caregivers have also often succumbed to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This is most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, where 18 million children are predicted to be orphaned by AIDS by the end of 2010. Worldwide, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) predicts the number of children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS is expected to reach 25 million by the end of the decade.
Vertical transmission of HIV from mother to child is the main route by which childhood HIV infection is acquired; the risk of perinatal acquisition is 25%. Perinatal transmission of infection by the mother accounts for 80% of pediatric HIV disease cases in the United States. Perinatal transmission can occur in utero, during the peripartum period, and from breastfeeding. Other routes of transmission, such as transfusion of blood and blood components, are rare in the United States but still exist in developing countries. Sexual abuse of children and high-risk behaviors in adolescents also contribute to youth HIV infection.
A variety of signs and symptoms manifesting in a child in whom HIV infection was not previously suspected should alert the clinician to the possibility of the disease. The presentations include recurrent bacterial infections, unrelenting fever, unrelenting diarrhea, unrelenting thrush, recurrent pneumonia, chronic parotitis, generalized lymphadenopathy, delay in development with failure to thrive, and significant pruritic dermatoses. Mucocutaneous eruptions may be the first sign of HIV infection and may vary in presentation, depending on the child’s immune status.
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